2018 Impact factor 2.612

News

EPJ B Highlight - Inter-dependent networks stress test

Impact of network topologies. © Fu et al.

A new study relies on a complex systems modelling approach, known as graph theory, to analyze inter-dependent physical or social networks and improve their reliability in the event of failure

Energy production systems are good examples of complex systems. Their infrastructure equipment requires ancillary sub-systems structured like a network - including water for cooling, transport to supply fuel, and ICT systems for control and management. Every step in the network chain is interconnected with a wider network and they are all mutually dependent. A team of UK-based scientists has studied various aspects of inter-network dependencies, not previously explored. The findings have been published in EPJ B by Gaihua Fu from Newcastle University, UK, and colleagues. These findings could have implications for maximising the reliability of such networks when facing natural and man-made hazards.

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EPJ D Highlight - Water window imaging opportunity

Time-frequency analysis of dipole acceleration extracted from the numerical simulations performed in argon, for three different regimes of laser intensity. © Pérez-Hernández et al.

A new theoretical study elucidates mechanisms that could help in producing coherent radiations, and could ultimately help to achieve high-contrast images of biological samples

Ever heard of the water window? It consists of radiations in the 3.3 to 4.4 nanometre range, which are not absorbed by the water in biological tissues. New theoretical findings predict a novel way of achieving coherent radiations within the water window. These could be the basis of an optimal technique to obtain a high-contrast image of the biological samples or to be used in high-precision spectroscopy. Now, a new theoretical study identifies the physical mechanism needed to efficiently generate the harmonic radiations - which are multiples of an incoming laser’s frequency - at high laser intensities that occur beyond the saturation threshold of atoms and molecules. These findings, aimed at improving conventional methods of coherent radiation production to reach the water window, were recently published in the EPJ D by José Pérez-Hernández from the Centre for Pulsated Laser, CLPU, in Salamanca, Spain, and colleagues.

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EPJ Quantum Technology Highlight - Quantum simulators explained

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A quantum simulator can then loosely be considered to be a simulator for the system of interest. © Johnson et al.

Everything you ever wanted to know about quantum simulators has been summed up in a new review from EPJ Quantum Technology

As part of a new Thematic Series on Quantum Simulations, the open access journal EPJ Quantum Technology has just published an overview of what a quantum simulator is, namely: a device that actively uses quantum effects to answer questions on model systems. This review, published by Tomi Johnson and colleagues from the Centre for Quantum Technologies in Singapore and the University of Oxford, UK, outlines various approaches used in quantum simulators.

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EPJ E Highlight - Optimum inertial self-propulsion design for snowman-like nanorobot

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Streamlines, velocity field, and magnitude of the share of the propelling flow attributed to the low level inertial force, in the case of touching spheres. © Nadal et al.

A new study investigates the effects of small but finite inertia on the propulsion of micro and nano-scale swimming machines that could have implications for biomedical applications

Scale plays a major role in locomotion. Swimming microorganisms, such as bacteria and spermatozoa, are subjected to relatively small inertial forces compared to the viscous forces exerted by the surrounding fluid. Such low-level inertia makes self-propulsion a major challenge. Now, scientists have found that the direction of propulsion made possible by such inertia is opposite to that induced by a viscoelastic fluid. These findings have been published in EPJ E by François Nadal from the Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), in Le Barp, France, and colleagues. This study could help optimise the design of self-propelled micro- and nanoscale artificial swimming machines to improve their mobility in medical applications.

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EPJ D Colloquium - One Hundred Years of the Franck-Hertz Experiment

Schematic representation of the Franck-Hertz experiment

The seminal 1914 experiment of James Franck and Gustav Hertz provided a graphic demonstration of the quantisation properties of atoms, and thereby laid the foundations of modern atomic physics. This EPJ D colloquium revisits the experiment on the occasion of its Centenary and compares the traditional and modern interpretations, as well as highlighting the link between microscopic processes, which are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics, and macroscopic phenomena, as observed in the laboratory.

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EPJ D Topical Review - Gas breakdown and secondary electron yields

Paschen curves for molecular gases

In this EPJ D topical review, the authors present a systematic study of gas breakdown potentials. An analysis of the key elementary processes involved in low-current low-pressure discharges is given, with the aim of illustrating how such discharges are used to determine swarm parameters and how such data may be applied to the modeling of discharges.

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EPJ B Highlight - Unleashing the power of quantum dot triplets

Triple quantum dot system. © S. B. Tooski et al.

Another step towards faster computers relies on three coherently coupled quantum dots used as quantum information units, which could ultimately enhance quantum computers’ speed

Quantum computers have yet to materialise. Yet, scientists are making progress in devising suitable means of making such computers faster. One such approach relies on quantum dots—a kind of artificial atom, easily controlled by applying an electric field. A new study demonstrates that changing the coupling of three coherently coupled quantum dots (TQDs) with electrical impulses can help better control them. This has implications, for example, should TQDs be used as quantum information units, which would produce faster quantum computers due to the fact that they would be operated through electrical impulses. These findings have been published in EPJ B by Sahib Babaee Tooski and colleagues affiliated with both the Institute of Molecular Physics at the Polish Academy of Sciences, in Poznan, Poland, the University of Ljubljana and the Jožef Stefan Institute in Slovenia.

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EPJ B Colloquium - Next generation interatomic potentials for condensed matter systems

A small two-dimensional feed-forward Neural Network containing a single hidden layer.

More efficient computational methods are urgently needed to capture condensed matter systems in simulations. Electronic structure methods, such as density-functional theory (DFT), usually provide a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency, but they demand much computational power. For this reason, they are only applicable to small systems containing a few hundred atoms at most. Conversely, many interesting phenomena involve much larger systems comprising thousands of atoms or more. Considerable effort has been invested in the development of potentials that enable simulations to run on larger system and for longer times. Typically these potentials are based on physically-motivated functional forms. Therefore, while they perform very well for the specific applications for which they have been designed, they cannot easily be transferred from one system to another. Moreover, their numerical accuracy is restricted by the intrinsic limitations of the imposed functional forms. In this EPJ B Colloquium, Handley and Behler survey several novel types of potentials emerged in recent years, which are not based on physical considerations.

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EPJ E Highlight - Refined biological evolution model

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Artistic impression symbolising population evolution. © elly99 | istockphoto.com

A new study accounts for species interactions, and adds a layer of complexity to previous minimalists models

Models for the evolution of life are now being developed to try and clarify the long-term dynamics of an evolving system of species. Specifically, a recent model proposed by Petri Kärenlampi from the University of Eastern Finland in Joensuu accounts for species interactions with various degrees of symmetry, connectivity, and species abundance. This is an improvement on previous, simpler models, which apply random fitness levels to species. The findings published in EPJ E demonstrate that the resulting replicator ecosystems do not appear to be a self-organised critical model, unlike the so-called Bak-Sneppen model; a reference in the field. The reasons for this discrepancy are not yet known.

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EPJ A Highlight - Photocouplings at the Pole from Pion Photoproduction

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Тelected fit results for the beam asymmetry Σ (left) and the double polarization E (right)

While the strong force is well understood at high energies in terms of perturbative QCD, the precise mechanism responsible for the confinement of quarks and gluons in color-neutral hadrons at low energies remains a mystery to date. The intermediate energy region is characterized by rich and complex spectra of excited baryons and mesons. Its phenomenology provides a key to our understanding of the fundamental properties of matter.

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Editor-in-Chief
Paolo Biscari
Thank you. We are indebted to the reviewers, Editor for their time and pinpoint comments and suggestions. I am also thankful for the Editorial office. The speed of the manuscript processing and the updates are too good.

Vemula Ramakrishna Reddy, IIT Hyderabad, India

ISSN: 2190-5444 (Electronic Edition)

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