Kinetic theory of two-dimensional point vortices and fluctuation–dissipation theorem
Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France
Accepted: 5 January 2023
Published online: 8 February 2023
We complete the kinetic theory of two-dimensional (2D) point vortices initiated in previous works. We use a simpler and more physical formalism. We consider a system of 2D point vortices submitted to a small external stochastic perturbation and determine the response of the system to the perturbation. We derive the diffusion coefficient and the drift by polarization of a test vortex. We introduce a general Fokker–Planck equation involving a diffusion term and a drift term. When the drift by polarization can be neglected, we obtain a secular dressed diffusion equation sourced by the external noise. When the external perturbation is created by a discrete collection of N point vortices, we obtain a Lenard–Balescu-like kinetic equation reducing to a Landau-like kinetic equation when collective effects are neglected. We consider a multi-species system of point vortices. We discuss the process of kinetic blocking in the single and multi-species cases. When the field vortices are at statistical equilibrium (thermal bath), we establish the proper expression of the fluctuation–dissipation theorem for 2D point vortices relating the power spectrum of the fluctuations to the response function of the system. In that case, the drift coefficient and the diffusion coefficient satisfy an Einstein-like relation and the Fokker–Planck equation reduces to a Smoluchowski-like equation. We mention the analogy between 2D point vortices and stellar systems. In particular, the drift of a point vortex in 2D hydrodynamics (Chavanis in Phys Rev E 58:R1199, 1998) is the counterpart of the Chandrasekhar dynamical friction in astrophysics. We also consider a gas of 2D Brownian point vortices described by N coupled stochastic Langevin equations and determine its mean and mesoscopic evolution. In the present paper, we treat the case of unidirectional flows, but our results can be straightforwardly generalized to axisymmetric flows.
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