Application of a MA-XRF/RIS/PL scanner to paintwork studies
The Cyprus Institute, 2121, Aglantzia, Cyprus
2 Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, C2RMF, 75001, Paris, France
3 Fondation des Sciences du Patrimoine, ANR-17-EUR-0021, 95000, Cergy, France
4 Fédération de Recherche FR3506 New AGLAE, 75001, Paris, France
5 Chimie ParisTech, CNRS, Instistut de Recherche de Chimie de Paris (IRCP), UMR8247, PSL University, 75005, Paris, France
Accepted: 17 December 2022
Published online: 12 January 2023
Photoluminescence (PL) under monochromatic illumination in the UV-Vis-NIR (200–1000 nm), and Reflectance Imaging Spectroscopy (RIS) in the visible and near-infrared domain (NIR, 700–1000 nm) are well-established techniques which usefully complements X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) in the study of paintworks. PL under UV illumination allows the rapid identification of organic pigments undetected by XRF like dyes and provides clues for distinguishing crystalline phases of inorganic pigments showing the same XRF spectra like hydrocerussite and cerussite in lead white. For example, PL in the NIR domain allows the detection of pigments like Egyptian blue. The new system presented here is an evolution of the versatile MA-XRF previously designed by our group, which now allows the simultaneous recording of the PL, reflectance and XRF spectra on the same spot and delivers intrinsically aligned XRF/PL/RS maps. The five spectral datasets (XRF, PL under 250 nm, 365 nm and 655 nm excitation, RIS in 400–1000 nm) can be exploited for coupled exploration and processing of maps using open-source programs. The operation of this instrument, which is the first to combine XRF, RS and PL mappings, is exemplified on a Fayum portrait from the collection of the Egyptian antiquities Department of the Louvre Museum.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2023. corrected publication 2023. Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.