Elucidation of photocatalytic degradation mechanism of an organic pollutant based on Gd2−xTi2−xFexO7 nanomaterials under simulated visible light
Department of Physics, College of Science, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, 31441, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
2 Basic and Applied Scientific Research Center, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, 31441, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Accepted: 5 June 2022
Published online: 20 June 2022
The contaminants such as dyes in wastewater discharged into the environment are significant consequences for human health and other species. The current study focuses on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light treatment, using Fe doped Gd2Ti2O7 with (Fe = 0, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mM) synthesized via hydrothermal treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy are used to examine the physiochemical characteristics of all the fabricated materials. In all photocatalysts, XRD patterns exhibit the primary peaks of the Gd2Ti2O7 phase, indicating that Fe ions are efficiently introduced into the Gd2Ti2O7 lattice. After 240 mints of visible light irradiation, dye discoloration and mineralization are around 99%, utilizing the optimized 2.5 mM Fe-doped Gd2Ti2FeO7. The increased photocatalytic activity should be linked to the simultaneous doping of 2.5 mM Fe3+ ions in Gd2Ti2FeO7, which results in a significant decrease in band gap value and increased production of oxygen vacancies, which trap electrons and reduce recombination with photogenerated positive holes.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2022