Multiferroic properties of GdFe0.9M0.1O3 (M = Ag1+, Co2+ and Cr3+) nanoparticles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity
Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
2 Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT), Cairo, Egypt
3 Department of Electronics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India
Accepted: 30 March 2022
Published online: 8 April 2022
Multifunctional nanoparticles NPs with material composition GdFe0.9M0.1O3; M = Ag, Co, and Cr have successfully been synthesized using the citrate auto-combustion technique. The single phase of the orthorhombic perovskite structure is ratified from the XRD data. The structural, magnetic, and thermoelectric power of the samples along with the results of antibacterial activities are reported in the present manuscript. The variation in the magnetization is argued in view of the strength and type of exchange interaction as well as buckling of the < BO6 > octahedron. The super exchange interaction between the Fe–O–Fe and the Cr–O–Cr and the randomness of Cr ions in the host lattice site are the main reasons behind the weak ferromagnetism obtained from GdFe0.9Cr0.1O3. Ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism have a dissimilar origin and appear independently. The origin of antiferromagnetism is the spin canting of the B ions. However, the origin of the ferroelectric properties is the hybridization between B cations and O2− anion. The use of silver metal particles as antibacterial agents is noteworthy due to their advantages in terms of chemical stability, efficacy and long-term durability. These advantages can be extended by considering the relatively low toxicity of these particles to the human body compared to other inorganic metals.
© The Author(s) 2022
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.