Bifurcation analysis of a discrete-time compartmental model for hypertensive or diabetic patients exposed to COVID-19
Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, 44230, Islamabad, Pakistan
2 Department of Mathematics, COMSATS University Islamabad, Attock Campus, Attock, Pakistan
3 CONACyT-Tecnológico Nacional de México/CENIDET, Interior Internado Palmira S/N, Col. Palmira, C.P. 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México
Accepted: 11 August 2021
Published online: 18 August 2021
In this article, a mathematical model for hypertensive or diabetic patients open to COVID-19 is considered along with a set of first-order nonlinear differential equations. Moreover, the method of piecewise arguments is used to discretize the continuous system. The mathematical system is said to reveal six equilibria, namely, extinction equilibrium, boundary equilibrium, quarantined-free equilibrium, exposure-free equilibrium, endemic equilibrium, and the equilibrium free from susceptible population. Local stability conditions are developed for our discrete-time mathematical system about each of its equilibrium point. The existence of period-doubling bifurcation and chaos is studied in the absence of isolated population. It is shown that our system will become unstable and experiences the chaos when the quarantined compartment is empty, which is true in biological meanings. The existence of Neimark–Sacker bifurcation is studied for the endemic equilibrium point. Moreover, it is shown numerically that our discrete-time mathematical system experiences the period-doubling bifurcation about its endemic equilibrium. To control the period-doubling bifurcation, Neimark–Sacker bifurcation, a generalized hybrid control methodology is used. Moreover, this model is analyzed along with generalized hybrid control in order to eliminate chaos and oscillation epidemiologically presenting the significance of quarantine in the COVID-19 environment.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021