Optimization of protein extraction and ELISA immunodetection from protein-based paint models with mesoporous silica nanoparticles and MCM41
HERCULES Laboratory and CityUMacau Chair on Sustainable Heritage, Institute for Advanced Studies and Research, Évora University, Largo Marquês de Marialva 8, 7000-809, Évora, Portugal
2 CNRS, Restoration Engineering of Natural and Cultural Heritage, Faculty of Sciences, IMBE UMR 7263/IRD237, Avignon University, IRD/Aix-Marseille University, BP 21239, Campus Jean-Henri Fabre, 301 rue Baruch de Spinoza, 84916, Avignon Cedex 9, France
3 Chemistry Department, School of Sciences and Technology, Évora University, Rua Romão Ramalho 59, 7000-671, Évora, Portugal
Accepted: 31 May 2021
Published online: 25 June 2021
Protein-based biological materials such as albumin, casein and collagen are found in various cultural heritage (CH) artefacts. This study focuses on the study of protein binders from easel paintings media. Proteins have complex structures which are difficult to identify with non-invasive spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, Raman, UV). Immunoassays such as ELISA determine the protein’s source of origin which is necessary for art objects. To increase the detection and identification of proteins by immunoassays, the efficiency of micro-extraction of proteins from heritage materials is a crucial step. Extractions mediated by cycles of orbital agitation and ultrasonic radiation give the possibility to extract proteins from easel painting sample. In this work, protein-based paint models coupled with silica nanoparticles were used for micro-extraction. Nanoparticles possess high surface-to-volume ratios that can attach bioactive molecules such as proteins and increase the total protein recovered from microsamples. Protein extracts were quantified with Bradford Assay in the presence of Coomassie blue. The protein recovery results were statistically computed, and the SPSS analysis shows significant (p < 0.05) increase in protein recovery, above 1.3 times for NPSiO2 and above 1.6 times for MCM-41. The statistical data shows evidence that silica nanoparticles intensify the total protein recovered from paint microsamples. Finally, ELISA was realized on the protein extracts to verify and compare the immunodetection of protein from the paint models with and without the use of silica nanoparticles.
© The Author(s) 2021
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