Numerical computation of heat transfer enhancement through Cosserat hybrid nanofluids using continuous Galerkin–Petrov method
Department of Mathematics, Sukkur IBA University, Sukkur, 65200, Pakistan
2 Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistic, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan
* e-mail: email@example.com
Accepted: 13 January 2020
Published online: 3 February 2020
The Cosserat continuum is a well-established theory which incorporates independent micro-rotational motions of particles in the Cauchy continuum theory. Since hybrid nanofluids are suspensions with nanosized particles in base fluids, the independent micro-motions of the particles influence the rotational motions of the fluid particles and contribute in angular momentum and energy balance of the system. The consideration of micro-rotational motions of particles in heat transfer models will allow predicting true heat transfer characteristics. Here, the Cauchy continuum heat transfer model is enhanced with the consideration of Cosserat continuum model and numerical study on the heat transfer with hybrid nanofluids is presented using a new numerical procedure. The numerical algorithm is presented based on continuous Galerkin–Petrov finite element method embedded with shooting method. Three different types of hybrid nanofluids are taken into consideration along with two different simple nanofluids. Heat transfer enhancement through these Cosserat hybrid nanofluids with different physical effects is discussed. Moreover, the effect of physical parameters such as Cosserat rotational factor, nanoparticle concentration factor, Eckert number and magnetic parameter is studied and examined on the thermal boundary layer and heat transfer enhancement. Heat transfer enhancement using different hybrid nanofluids along with some new interesting observed features of the flow is presented and discussed in detail. To validate the achieved results, a comparison is made in the limiting case with existing results in the literature and a good agreement is found.
© Società Italiana di Fisica (SIF) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature, 2020