Decolonisation of fractional calculus rules: Breaking commutativity and associativity to capture more natural phenomena
Institute for Groundwater Studies, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, 9300, Bloemfontein, South Africa
2 CONACyT-Tecnológico Nacional de México/CENIDET, Interior Internado Palmira S/N, Col. Palmira, C.P. 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
* e-mail: AtanganaA@ufs.ac.za
Accepted: 24 January 2018
Published online: 27 April 2018
To answer some issues raised about the concept of fractional differentiation and integration based on the exponential and Mittag-Leffler laws, we present, in this paper, fundamental differences between the power law, exponential decay, Mittag-Leffler law and their possible applications in nature. We demonstrate the failure of the semi-group principle in modeling real-world problems. We use natural phenomena to illustrate the importance of non-commutative and non-associative operators under which the Caputo-Fabrizio and Atangana-Baleanu fractional operators fall. We present statistical properties of generator for each fractional derivative, including Riemann-Liouville, Caputo-Fabrizio and Atangana-Baleanu ones. The Atangana-Baleanu and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives show crossover properties for the mean-square displacement, while the Riemann-Liouville is scale invariant. Their probability distributions are also a Gaussian to non-Gaussian crossover, with the difference that the Caputo Fabrizio kernel has a steady state between the transition. Only the Atangana-Baleanu kernel is a crossover for the waiting time distribution from stretched exponential to power law. A new criterion was suggested, namely the Atangana-Gómez fractional bracket, that helps describe the energy needed by a fractional derivative to characterize a 2-pletic manifold. Based on these properties, we classified fractional derivatives in three categories: weak, mild and strong fractional differential and integral operators. We presented some applications of fractional differential operators to describe real-world problems and we proved, with numerical simulations, that the Riemann-Liouville power-law derivative provides a description of real-world problems with much additional information, that can be seen as noise or error due to specific memory properties of its power-law kernel. The Caputo-Fabrizio derivative is less noisy while the Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivative provides an excellent description, due to its Mittag-Leffler memory, able to distinguish between dynamical systems taking place at different scales without steady state. The study suggests that the properties of associativity and commutativity or the semi-group principle are just irrelevant in fractional calculus. Properties of classical derivatives were established for the ordinary calculus with no memory effect and it is a failure of mathematical investigation to attempt to describe more complex natural phenomena using the same notions.
© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature, 2018