Derivation of a generalized Schrödinger equation from the theory of scale relativity
Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062, Toulouse, France
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Accepted: 3 May 2017
Published online: 30 June 2017
Using Nottale’s theory of scale relativity relying on a fractal space-time, we derive a generalized Schrödinger equation taking into account the interaction of the system with the external environment. This equation describes the irreversible evolution of the system towards a static quantum state. We first interpret the scale-covariant equation of dynamics stemming from Nottale’s theory as a hydrodynamic viscous Burgers equation for a potential flow involving a complex velocity field and an imaginary viscosity. We show that the Schrödinger equation can be directly obtained from this equation by performing a Cole-Hopf transformation equivalent to the WKB transformation. We then introduce a friction force proportional and opposite to the complex velocity in the scale-covariant equation of dynamics in a way that preserves the local conservation of the normalization condition. We find that the resulting generalized Schrödinger equation, or the corresponding fluid equations obtained from the Madelung transformation, involve not only a damping term but also an effective thermal term. The friction coefficient and the temperature are related to the real and imaginary parts of the complex friction coefficient in the scale-covariant equation of dynamics. This may be viewed as a form of fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We show that our generalized Schrödinger equation satisfies an H-theorem for the quantum Boltzmann free energy. As a result, the probability distribution relaxes towards an equilibrium state which can be viewed as a Boltzmann distribution including a quantum potential. We propose to apply this generalized Schrödinger equation to dark matter halos in the Universe, possibly made of self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates.
© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, 2017