Buoyancy and metallic particle effects on an unsteady water-based fluid flow along a vertically rotating cone
Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, 44000, Islamabad, Pakistan
2 Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Spencer Engineering Building, University of Western Ontario, Room 3055, London, Ontario, Canada
* e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 20 August 2014
Published online: 8 October 2014
This article is devoted to analyzing the effects of different types of nanoparticles, namely, copper (Cu), aluminum ( Al2O3 and titanium (TiO2), within the base fluid (water) on an unsteady mixed convection heat transfer flow over a rotating cone. This model concerns a nanofluid which incorporates only the nanoparticle volume fraction for each mentioned particle. The governing equations are solved numerically with the help of the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The influences of significant parameters, like the volume fraction of three types of nanoparticles with water as a base fluid, are reported and discussed through graphs of velocities, temperature, skin friction coefficient and reduced Nusselt number. The results are recovered for the existing literature when the contribution of nanoparticles is negligible. In conclusion it is observed that, for both assisting and opposing flow, the local Nusselt number increases with an increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction and the TiO2-water has a higher Nusselt number when it is compared to both Al2O3 and Cu-water.
© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2014