Clusters of heavy particles in two-dimensional Keplerian turbulence
Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Nice, France
2 Université Côte d’Azur, Inria, CNRS, Sophia-Antipolis, France
3 CEMEF, Mines Paris, PSL University, CNRS, Sophia-Antipolis, France
Accepted: 11 December 2022
Published online: 9 January 2023
Protoplanetary disks are gaseous systems in Keplerian rotation around young stars, known to be turbulent. They include a small fraction of dust from which planets form. In the incremental scenario for planet growth, the formation of kilometer-size objects (planetesimals) from pebbles is a major open question. Clustering of particles is necessary for solids to undergo a local gravitational collapse. To address this question, the dynamic of inertial particles in turbulent flows with Keplerian rotation and shear is studied. Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations are performed to explore systematically two physical parameters: the rotation rate, which depends on the distance to the star, and the particle response time, which relates to their size. Shear is found to drastically affect the characteristics of the turbulent flow destroying cyclones and favoring the survival of anticyclones. Faster Keplerian rotation enhances clustering of particles. For intermediate sizes, particles concentrate in anticyclones. These clusters form in a hierarchical manner and merge together with time. For other parameter values, solids concentrate on fractal sets that get more singular with rotation. The mass distribution of particles is then found to be multifractal with small dimensions at large orders, intriguing for triggering their gravitational collapse. Such results are promising for a precise description and better understanding of planetesimal formation.
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