Quantum hall effects in two-dimensional electron systems: a global approach
Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain
Accepted: 11 November 2021
Published online: 23 December 2021
Up to almost the last two decades all the experimental results concerning the quantum Hall effect (QHE), i.e. the observation of plateaux at integer or fractional (FQHE) values of the constant h/e2, were related to quantum-wells in semiconductor heterostructures. However, more recently, a renewed interest in revisiting these phenomena has arisen thanks to the observation of entirely similar effects in graphene and topological insulators. In this paper we show an approach encompassing all these QHEs using the same theoretical frame, entailing both Hall effect plateaux and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. Moreover, the model also enables the analysis of both phenomena as a function not only of the magnetic field but the gate voltage as well. More specifically, in the light of the approach, the FQHE in any two-dimensional electron system appears to be an effect of the breaking of the degeneration of every Landau level, n, as a result of the electrostatic interaction involved, and being characterized by the set of three integer numbers (n, p, q), where p and q have clear physical meanings too.
© The Author(s) 2021
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.