Geometric quantification of multiparty entanglement through orthogonality of vectors
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, 741246, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India
Accepted: 27 October 2021
Published online: 6 November 2021
The wedge product of vectors has been shown to yield the generalised entanglement measure I-concurrence, wherein the separability of the multiparty qubit system arises from the parallelism of vectors in the underlying Hilbert space of the subsystems. Here, we demonstrate the geometrical conditions of the post-measurement vectors which maximise the entanglement corresponding to the bi-partitions and can yield non-identical set of maximally entangled states. The Bell states for the two-qubit case, GHZ and GHZ like states with superposition of four constituents for three qubits, naturally arise as the maximally entangled states. The geometric conditions for maximally entangled two-qudit systems are derived, leading to the generalised Bell states, where the reduced density matrices are maximally mixed. We further show that the reduced density matrix for an arbitrary finite dimensional subsystem of a general qudit state can be constructed from the overlap of the post-measurement vectors. Using this approach, we discuss the trade-off between the local properties, namely predictability and coherence with the global property, entanglement for the non-maximally entangled two-qubit state.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021