Irreversibility and thermal analysis of ferrofluid with numerical modeling
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Accepted: 24 October 2021
Published online: 11 November 2021
In current investigation, hybrid nanomaterial transportation within a permeable zone with inclusion of magnetic field has been analyzed. To apply the feature of hybrid nanopowders, empirical correlations were utilized. There is one new term in velocity equation in each direction due to apply of non-Darcy technique for permeable zone. The equations become simplify with definition of stream function. To solve equations, control volume based finite element method was selected with incorporating triangular elements. Lorentz forces generate because of inclusion of magnetic field. To find the components of irreversibility, formulations were added at the end of FORTAN code and contours were reported. With increase in Rayleigh number (Ra), temperature of hot element declines about 30%. The power of clockwise eddy for log(Ra) = 5 is 20 times bigger than Ra = 1e3. Increasing Ha makes temperature to rise about 14.2% while strength of cell decreases about 55.6%. With growth of Hartmann number (Ha), friction component declines about 27.2% while thermal component augments about 66.6%. Greater value of Darcy number (Da) leads to reduction of inner wall temperature. Rise of Ha causes to decrement of Nusselt (Nu). Rising Da causes Bejan number (Be) to reduce while Nu improves.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021