Dual interpretations of the nonextensive statistical thermodynamics with parameter transformation
School of Science, Henan Institute of Technology, Xinxiang City, 43003, China
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Accepted: 24 March 2020
Published online: 15 April 2020
In complex systems, due to the invalidity of ergodic property, the time average of observable quantity is not equivalent to its ensemble average, and then, the latter is nonmeasurable. In order to find measurable quantities, the prior probability is introduced, estimated in original Euclidean phase-space with the ergodicity. The prior probability is associated with the ensemble probability through two manners, by, respectively, evoking the second and third choices of energy constraints. Two different ensemble probabilities are inferred through maximum entropy procedure, of which one is predictable and another is not. It can be verified that these two probabilities are equivalent to each other. With the equivalence, the third energy is directly measurable while the second one is indirectly measurable. By doing this, a consistent formalism of statistical thermodynamics is then established, which consists of dual interpretations of ensemble probability and dual Legendre transformations. Lastly, the independence of prior probability leads to an interesting composition law for entropy and energy, with different parameters and even interactions, in which case the ordinary thermodynamic method is verified to be valid.
© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature, 2020